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A COMPENDIUM OF REFERENCES
ON FLIES AND DISEASE

For your information, we have listed both paper publications and Internet sites with valuable information.

Journals and Other Publications

AKINBODE, O.A., J.O. Hassan and A. Adejinmi. 1989. Public health importance of market meat exposed to refuse flies. Internat J Zoonoses 11: 111-114.

ALCIVAR, Z.C. and R.F. Campos. 1946. Flies as vectors of enteric pathogens in Guayaquil. Rev Ecuatoriano Hig Med Trop 3: 3-14.

ANONYMOUS. 1985. Intestinal Myiasis - Washington. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 34(10): 141-142.

BAER, W.S. 1931. The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis with the maggot therapy (larvae of the blowfly). J Bone Jt Surg Amer 13: 438-475.

BARKIN, J.S., C. MacLeod and P. Hamelik. 1983. Intestinal myiasis. Amer J Gastroenterol 78: 560-561.

BAUMGARTNER, D.L. 1988. Review of myiasis (Insecta:Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae) of Nearctic wildlife. Wildlife Rehab 7: 3-46.

BIWALD, S.P., J.F.B. Edeson, J. Ibrahim and R.M. Matossian. 1978. The role of non-biting flies in the transmission of enteric pathogens (Salmonella species and Shigella species) in Beirut, Lebanon. Ann Trop=20 Med Parasitol 72: 117-121.

BLACK, R.E., G.F. Craun and P.A. Blake. 1978. Epidemiology of common-source outbreaks of shigellosis in the United States 1961-1975. Amer J Epidemiol 108: 47-52.

BOHART, G.E. and J.L. Gressitt. 1951. Filth-Inhabiting Flies of Guam. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bull. 204, Honolulu.

BOLANOS, R. 1959. Frequency of Salmonella and Shigella in domestic flies collected in the city of San Jose. Rev Biol Trop 7: 207-210.

BORROR, D.J., C.A. Triplehorn and N.F. Johnson. 1989. An Introduction to the Study of Insects. Harcourt Brace, NY.

BUCHANAN, W.J. 1992. Transmission of cholera by flies 1897 (classical article). Salud Publ Mex 34: 362-364.

BUXTON, P.A. 1920. The importance of the house-fly as a carrier of E. hystolytica. Brit Med J 1: 142-144.

CARSON, N.A. and E.F. Martinez. 1967. Fly identification by the micromorphology of the head and head appendages. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 50: 1146-1193.

CHAVASSE, D.C., U. Blumenthal and P. Kolsky. 1994. Fly control in prevention of diarrheal disease. Lancet 344: 1231.

CHILD, F.S. and E.F. Roberts. 1931. The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis with live maggots. NY State J Med 31: 937-943.

CHOW, C.Y. 1940. The common blue-bottle fly, Chrysomyia megacephala, as a carrier of pathogenic bacteria in Peiping, China. Chin Med J 57: 145-153.

CHUNG, P.R., Y. Jung, K.S. Kim, S.K. Cho, S. Jeong and H.I. Ree. 1996. A human case of internal myiasis in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 34: 151-154.

COHEN, D., M. Green, C. Block, R. Slepon, R. Ambar, S.S. Wasserman and M.M. Levine. 1991. Reduction of transmission of shigellosis by control of houseflies (Musca domestica). Lancet 337: 993-997.

COLE, F.R. 1969. The Flies of Western North America. University of California Press, Berkeley.

COLEMAN, P.J. and P.P. Maier. 1956. Investigation of diarrhea in a migrant labor camp. Publ Health Rep 71: 1242.

D'ALMEIDA, J.M. and R.P. de Mello. 1996. Behavior of Calyptrate Diptera in relation to the choice of oviposition substrates under laboratory conditions in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 97: 131-136.

D'ALMEIDA, J.M. and R.J.B. Salviano. 1996. Feeding preference of the larvae of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Ravinia belforti (Prado e Fonseca) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) concerning different diets. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 97: 137-138.

DANIEL, M., W. Sixl and M. Kock. 1989. Problems of housing and health of people utilizing the garbage in Cairo from the viewpoint of medical entomology. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 33: 568-576.

De CAPITO, T. 1963. Isolation of Salmonella from flies. Amer J Trop Med Hyg 12: 892.

ECHEVERRIA, P., B.A. Harrison, C. Tirapat and A. McFarland. 1983. Flies as a source of enteric pathogens in a rural village in Thailand. Appl Environ Microbiol 46: 32-36.

ESSER, J.R. 1990. Factors influencing oviposition, larval growth and mortality in Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a pest of salted dried fish in south-east Asia. Bull Entomol Res 80: 369-376.

ESSER, J.R. 1991. Biology of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and reduction of losses to the salted-dried fish industry in south-east Asia. Bull Entomol Res 81: 33-41.

FABRITIUS, H. 1988. Public health impact and epidemiological risk concerning synanthropic flies. Z Gesamte Hyg 34: 59-61.

FERRAR, P. 1987. A Guide to the Breeding Habits and Immature Stages of Diptera Cyclorrhapha. E.J. Brill, Leiden.

FERRIERA, M.F., K.K. Ieng, L. Claro, G.W. Chau, S. Shinonaga and T. Goto. 1990. Intestinal myiasis in Macao. Chin Med J 8: 214-216.

FLOYD, T.M. and B.H. Cook. 1953. The housefly as a carrier of pathogenic human enteric bacteria in Cairo. J Egypt Publ Health Assoc 28: 75-85.

FOTEDAR, R., U. Banerjee, S. Singh, Shriniwas and A.K. Verma. 1992. The housefly (Musca domestica) as a carrier of pathogenic microorganisms in a hospital environment. J Hosp Infect 20: 209-215.

FURLANETTO, S.M.P., M.L.C. Campos, C.M. Harsi, G.M. Buralli and G.K. Ishihata. 1984. Enteropathogenic microorganisms in African flies in the genus Chrysomyia (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Brazil. Revta Microbiol 15: 170-174.

FURMAN, D.P., R.D. Young and E.P. Catts. 1959. Hermetia illuscens(Linnaeus) as a factor in the natural control of Musca domestica Linnaeus. J Econ Entomol 52: 917-921.

GIUGLIANO, L.G., M.G.P. Bernardi, J.C. Vasconcelos, C.A. Costa and R. Giugliano. 1986. Longitudinal study of diarrheal disease in a peri-urban community in Manaus (Amazon-Brazil). Ann Trop Med Parasitol 80: 443- 450.

GODARD, J. 1993. Physician's Guide to Arthropods of Medical Importance. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

GODOY, W.A.C., C.J. von Zuben and S.F. dos Reis. 1996. Larval dispersal in Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya putoria and Cochliomyia macellaria (Dipt. Calliphoridae): Ecological implications of aggregation behavior. J Appl Entomol 120: 423-426.

GORHAM, J.R., 1979. The significance for human health of insects in food. Ann Rev Entomol 24: 209-224.

GORHAM, J.R., ed., 1981. Principles of Food Analysis for Filth, Decomposition, and Foreign Matter. FDA Technical Bulletin No. 1. Washington, DC.

GORHAM, J.R. 1989. HACCP and filth in food. J Environ Health 52: 84-86.

GORHAM, J.R. 1991. Filth and extraneous matter in food. Encycl Food Sci Tech 847-867.

GREENBERG, B. 1959. Persistence of bacteria in the developmental stages of the housefly. Amer J Trop Med Hyg 8: 405-416 and 613-622.

GREENBERG, B. 1964. Experimental transmission of Salmonella typhimurium by houseflies to man. Amer J Hyg 80: 149-156.

GREENBERG, B. 1971. Flies and Disease. Volume 1 Ecology, Classification and Biotic Associations. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

GREENBERG, B. 1973. Flies and Disease. Volume 2 Biology and Disease Transmission. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

GREENBERG, B., G. Varela, A. Bornstein and H. Hernandez. 1963. Salmonellae from flies in a Mexican slaughterhouse. Amer J Hyg 77: 177-183.

GREENBERG, B. and A.A. Bornstein. 1964. Fly dispersion from a rural Mexican slaughterhouse. Amer J Trop Med Hyg 13: 881-886.

HAINES, C.P. and D.P. Rees. 1989. A Field Guide to the Types of Insects and Mites Infesting Cured Fish. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 303. Rome.

HAMM, L. and A.R. Olsen. 1979. Examination of frozen peeled and deveined shrimp for fly contamination. Laboratory Information Bulletin 2288: 1-2.

HALE, J.H., T.A.L. Davies and W.K. Ng Cgeng Hin. 1960. Flies (Musca domestica) in aeroplanes as vectors of fecal-borne disease. Royal Soc Trop Med Hyg Trans 54: 261-262.

HALL, D.G. 1948. The Blowflies of North America. Thomas Say Foundation, College Park, MD.

HARRIS, A.H. and H.A. Down. 1946. Studies of the dissemination of cysts and ova of human intestinal parasites by flies in various localities in Guam. Amer J Trop Med 26: 789-800.

HARWOOD, R.F. and M.T. James. 1979. Entomology in Human and Animal Health, 7th ed. Macmillan, NY. 548 pp.

HASEGAWA, S., H. Miwata, S. Masuda, H. Naruse and T. Ozaki. 1992. An infantile case of intestinal myiasis. Acta Paediatr Jpn 34: 87-89.

HOGUE, C.L. 1993. Insects of the Los Angeles Basin. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Los Angeles.

HORMAECHE, E., C.A. Peluffo and C.A. Aleppo. 1950. Investigation on the occurrence of bacteria of the genera Salmonella and Shigella in flies. Ann Inst Hig Montevideo 4: 75-79.

HOWARD, B.J. 1929. Fig Testing. US Dept. Agric., Wahington, DC.

IMMS, A.D. 1939. Dipterous larvae and wound treatment. Nature, London 144: 156.

JAMES, M.T. 1947. The flies that cause myiasis in man. USDA Misc Publ 631: 1- 175.

JETTMAR, H.M. 1940. Some experiments on the resistance of the larvae of latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala, against chemicals. Chin Med J 57: 74-85.

JUMAIAN, N.F., S.A. Kamhawi, F.A. Nimri and S.K. Abdel-Hafez. 1995. A case of intestinal myiasis caused by Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) from Jordan. Jpn J Parasitol 44: 361-364.

KANO, R. 1958. Notes on flies of medical importance in Japan. Bull Tokyo Med Dent Univ 5: 465-474.

KANO, R. and S. Shinonoga. 1965. Illustrated Keys to Adult Filth Flies of Japan. 406th Med Lab Ann Prof Rep (supplement). U.S. Army Medical Command, Japan.

KENNEY, M., L.K. Eveland, V. Yermarov and D.Y. Kassouny. 1976. Two cases of enteric myiasis in man. Am J Clin Pathol 66: 786-791.

KHALIL, K., G.B. Lindblom, K. Mazhar and B. Kaljser. 1994. Flies and water as reservoirs for bacterial enteropathogens in urban and rural areas in and around Lahore, Pakistan. Epidemiol Infect 113: 435-444.

KHIN, N.O., A.A. Sebastian and T. Aye. 1989. Carriage of enteric bacterial pathogens by house flies in Yangon, Myanmar. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 7: 81- 84.

KILPATRICK, J.W. and H.F. Schoof. 1959. Interrelationship of water and Hermetia illuscens breeding to Musca domestica production in human excrement. Amer J Trop Med Hyg 8: 597-602.

KNIGHT, S.M., W. Toodayan, W.C. Caique, W. Kyi, A. Barnes and P. Desmarchelier. 1992. Risk factors for the transmission of diarrhea in children: A case-control study in rural Malaysia. Internat J Epidemiol 21: 812-818.

KUHN, D.M. and T.G. Anderson. 1944. Bacillary dysentery epidemic in a large military organization. Amer J Publ Health 34: 750-755.

LAURENCE, B.R. 1986. Intestinal myiasis - Washington. Trop Dis Bull 83: 213.

LAWSON, J.R. and M.A. Gemmell. 1985. The potential role of blowflies in the transmission of taeniid tapeworm eggs. Parasitol 91: 129-143.

LEE, H.L., P. Chandrawathani, W.Y. Wong, S. Tharam and W.Y. Lim. 1995. A case of human enteric myiasis due to larvae of Hermetia illuscens (Family: Stratiomyiidae): first report in Malaysia. Malays J Pathol 17: 109-111.

LEVINE, O.S. and M.M. Levine. 1991. Houseflies (Musca domestica) as mechanical vectors of shigellosis. Rev Inf Dis 13: 688-696.

LINDSAY, D.R., W.H. Stewart and J. Watt. 1953. Effect of fly control on diarrheal disease in an area of moderate morbidity. Publ Health Rep 68: 361-367.

LINDSAY, D.R. and H.I. Scudder. 1956. Non-biting flies and disease. Ann Review Entomol 1: 323-346.

MARILUIS, J.C., M.C. Lagar and E.J. Bellegarde. 1989. Dissemination of enteroparasites by Calliphoridae (Insecta, Diptera). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 84: 349-351.

MAYR, A., 1983. Spread of infections via refuse by domestic, community and field vermin as vehicles, with special regard to human health. Zbl Bakt Hyg (B) 178: 53-60.

MCALPINE, ed. 1987. Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Vol. 2. Agriculture Canada Monograph No. 28. Ottawa.

MCKEEVER, D.C. 1933. Maggots in treatment of osteomyelitis. J Bone Jt Surg Amer 15: 85-93.

MINETTE, H.P., 1984. Epidemiologic aspects of salmonellosis in reptiles, amphibians, mollusks and crustaceans - a review. Internat J Zoonoses 11: 95-104.

MONZON, R.B., A.R. Sanchez, B.M. Tadaiman, O.A. Najos, E.G. Valencia, R.R. de Rueda and J.M. Ventura. 1991. A comparison of the role of Musca domestica (Linnaeus) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) as mechanical vectors of helminth parasites in a typical slum area of metropolitan Manila. Southeast Asean J Trop Med Publ Health 22: 222-228.

NAGAKURA, K., K.Y. Kawauichi, H. Tachibana, Y. Kaneda, S. Shinonaga and R. Kano. 1991. Three cases of intestinal myiasis in Japan. J Inf Dis 163: 1170- 1171.

NORRIS, K.R. 1965. The bionomics of blowflies. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 10: 47-68.

NORTH, D.E., K.L. Matteson, S.D. Helgerson, F. Richards Jr., J.M. Stewart, L.Baum and E.P. Catts. 1987. Intestinal myiasis in a baby attending a public health clinic. Nurse Pract 12(5): 60-63.

OKAEME, A.R., 1986. Flies (Diptera) infesting landed fresh water fishes of the Kainji Lake area, Nigeria. Internat J Zoonoses 13: 49-53.

OLDROYD, H. 1964. The Natural History of Flies. Weidenfield and Nicolson. London.

OLSEN, A.R. 1988. Recognition of the wings of some major filth fly families. Laboratory Information Bulletin 3237: 1-8.

OLSEN, A.R. 1996. Flies (Insecta: Diptera). Chapter 6 in A.R. Olsen, et al., eds., Fundamentals of Microanalytical Entomology, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

OLSEN, A.R., and T.H. Sidebottom. 1990. Biological observations on Chrysomya megacephala (Fabr.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Los Angeles, California and the Palau Islands. Pan-Pac Entomol 66: 126-130.

OLSEN, A.R., S.C. Angold, D.F. Gross and T.H. Sidebottom. 1992. New record of the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabr.) from Ecuador (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Pan-Pac Entomol 68: 280-281.

OLSEN, A.R., T.H. Sidebottom and S.G. Bennett. 1993. The Oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as an invading fly of public health importance. Bull Soc Vector Ecol 18: 133-146.

OLSEN, A.R., T.H. Sidebottom and S.A. Knight. 1996. Fundamentals of Microanalytical Entomology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

PARALUPPI, N.D., J.C. de Vasconcelos, J.S. de Aquino, E.G. Castellon and M. do S.B. da Silva. 1996. Calliphoridae (Diptera) in Manaus: IV Bacteria isolated from blowflies collected in street markets. Acta Amazonica 26: 93-96.

PEFFLY, R.L. 1953. Crosses and sexual isolation of Egyptian forms of Musca domestica. Evolution 7: 65-75.

PEPPLER, H.J. 1944. Usefulness of microorganisms in studying dispersion of flies. Bull U.S. Army Med Dep 75: 121-122.

PITTAWAY, A.R. 1991. Arthropods of Medical and Veterinary Importance. A Checklist of Preferred Names and Allied Terms. CAB International.

RADVAN, R., 1960. Persistence of bacteria during development in flies. Folia Microbiol 5: 50-56, 85-92, 149, 156.

RICHARDS, C.S., W.B. Jackson, R.M. DeCapito and P.P. Maier. 1961. Studies on rates of recovery of Shigella from domestic flies and from humans in the southwestern United States. Amer J Trop Med Hyg 10: 44-48.

ROGERS, N. 1989. Germs with legs: flies, disease, and the new public health. Bull Hist Med 63: 599-617.

ROSEF, O. and G. Kapperud. House flies (Musca domestica) as possible vectors of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni. Appl Environ Microbiol 45: 381-383.

SABATINO, F.J., 1954. Identification of insect setae as an index of contamination in dairy products. J Assoc Off Agric Chem 37: 960-966.

SACCA, G. 1964. Comparative bionomics in the genus Musca. Ann Rev Entomol 9: 341-358.

SAKDISIWASDI, O., S. Achananuparp, A. Limsuwan, P. Nanna and L. Barnyen. 1982. Salmonella and Shigella carrier rates and environmental sanitation in a rural district, Central Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Publ Health 13: 380-384.

SCOTT, H.G. 1964. Human myiasis in North America (1952-1962 inclusive). Fla Entomol 47: 255-261.

SCOTT, H.G. and K.S. Littig. 1964. Flies of Public Health Importance and Their Control. CDC, Atlanta.

SENGUPTA, P.G., B.K. Sircar, S.K. Mandal, A.K. Mukhopadhyay, G.B. Nair, D.N. Gupta, S. Ghosh, N.C. Saha, B.C. Deb, S.N. Sikder, B. Manna, S.K. Bhattacharya, S.P. De and B.K. Mandal. 1995. Epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae 0139 with special reference to intrafamilial transmission in Calcutta. J Infect 31: 45-47.

SHARMA, H., D. Dayal and S.P. Agrawal. 1989. Nasal myiasis: review of 10 years experience. J Laryngol Otol 103: 489-491.

SHERMAN, R.A., F.A. Wyle and L. Thrupp. 1995. Effects of seven antibiotics on the growth and development of Phaenicia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae. J Med Entomol 32: 646-649.

SHERMAN, R.A., and E.A. Pechter. 1988. Maggot therapy - A review of the therapeutic applications of fly larvae in human medicine, especially for treating osteomyelitis. Med Vet Entomol 2: 225-230.

SHIMIZU, F., M. Hashimoto, H. Taniguchi, W. Oota, H. Kakizawa, R. Takada, R. Kano, Y. Tange, K.Kaneko, S. Shinonaga and K. Miyamoto. 1965. Epidemiological studies on fly-borne epidemics. Report I. Significant roles of flies in relation to intestinal disorders. Jpn J Sanit Zool 16: 201-211.

SHIOTA, T., Y. Yoshida, S. Hirai and S. Torii. 1990. Intestinal myiasis caused by Parasarcophaga crassipalpis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). Pediatrics 85: 213- 217.

SKIDMORE, P. 1985. The Biology of the Muscidae of the World. Dr. W. Junk Publ, Netherlands.

SRAMOVA, H., M. Daniel, V. Absolonova, D. Dedicova, Z. Jedlickova, H. Lhotova, P. Petras and V. Subertova. 1992. Epidemiological role of arthropods detectable in hospital facilities. J Hosp Infect 20: 281-292.

SULAIMAN, S., A.R. Sohadi, H. Yunus and R. Iberahim. 1988. The role of some cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of human helminths in Malaysia. Med Vet Entomol 2: 1-6.

SULAIMAN, S., A.H. Aziz, H. Yunus and A.R. Sohadi. 1988. Isolations of enteropathogenic bacteria from some cyclorrhaphan flies in Malaysia. Malays Appl Biol 17: 129-133.

SULAIMAN, S., A.R. Sohadi and J. Jeffery. 1989. Human helminth parsasite burdens on cyclorrhaphan flies (Diptera) trapped at an aboriginal settlement in Malaysia. Bull Entomol Res 79: 625-629.

TACHIBANA, H., M. Sasao, T. Tanaka, K. Nagakura, Y. Kaneda, S. Shinonaga and R. Kano. 1987. A case of intestinal myiasis in Japan. Tokai J Exp Clin Med 12: 349-352.

TEICH, S. and R.A.M. Myers. 1986. Maggot therapy for severe skin infection. South Med J 79: 1153-1155.

TESSMER, J.W. and C.L. Meek. 1996. Dispersal and distribution of Calliphoridae (Diptera) immatures from animal carcasses in southern Louisiana. J Med Entomol 33: 665-669.

THOMAS, G. and J.B. Jesperson. 1994. Non-biting Muscidae and control methods. Rev Sci Tech 13: 1159-1173.

UMECHE, N. and L.E. Mandah. 1989. Musca domestica as a carrier of intestinal helminths in Calabar, Nigeria. East Afr Med J 66: 349-352.

VERHOESTRAETE, L.J. and R.R. Puffer, 1958. Diarrheal disease with special reference to the Americas. World Health Org Bull 19: 23-51.

WALKER, D.J. and L. Donegan. 1988. Protection of fish from blowfly infestation in the wet season in Malawi by dipping in dilute aqueous insecticide preparations before sundrying. Overseas Development Natural Resources Institute. London.

WATT, J. and D.R. Lindsay. 1948. Diarrheal disease control studies. I. Effect of fly control in a high morbidity area. Publ Health Rep 63: 1319-1334.

WEIR, J.M., I.M. Wasif, F.R. Hassan, S.D.M. Attia and M.A. Kadar. 1952. An evaluation of health and sanitation in Egyptian villages. J Egypt Publ Health Assoc 27: 52-122.

WEST, L.S. 1951. The Housefly. Its Natural History, Medical Importance and Control. Comstock Publ. Co., Ithaca, NY.

WILTON, D.P. 1961. Refuse containers as a source of flies in Honolulu and nearby communities. Proc Hawaiian Entomol Soc 17: 477-481.

YAO, H.Y., I.C. Yuan and D. Hine. 1929. The relation of flies, beverages and well-water to gastro-intestinal diseases in Peiping. Natl Med J China 15: 410- 418.

ZUMPT, F. 1965. Myiasis in Man and Animals in the Old World. Butterworths, London.

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